Bungeni http://bungeni.org/ Wed, 18 May 2022 03:20:43 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://bungeni.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/bungeni-icon-150x150.png Bungeni http://bungeni.org/ 32 32 Alien stone discovered in Egypt may be Earth’s first evidence of rare supernova https://bungeni.org/2022/05/18/alien-stone-discovered-in-egypt-may-be-earths-first-evidence-of-rare-supernova/ Wed, 18 May 2022 03:01:52 +0000 https://bungeni.org/2022/05/18/alien-stone-discovered-in-egypt-may-be-earths-first-evidence-of-rare-supernova/

“Standard candle” (or Type Ia) supernova explosions are among the most energetic events in the universe, occurring when a density white dwarf star subsumes another star. Now scientists believe they have found the first evidence on Earth of such a supernova.

The claim comes after a careful study of the alien hypatia stone which was found in Egypt in 1996. Telltale signs, including chemical composition and rock patterning, suggest the shards contain bits of dust and gas cloud surrounding a supernova Ia.

Over billions of years, this mixture of dust and gas would have turned into a solid, the researchers say, eventually forming the parent body from which Hypatia emerged near the birth of our solar system.

A 3 gram sample of the Hypatia stone. (Roman Serra)

“In a sense, we could say that we caught a supernova Ia explosion in the act, because the gas atoms from the explosion were captured in the surrounding dust cloud, which eventually formed the parent body of Hypatia”, says geochemist Jan Kramers from the University of Johannesburg in South Africa.

Using detailed, non-destructive chemical analysis techniques, the team examined 17 different targets on a small sample of Hypatia. From there, it was a matter of piecing together clues as to where the stone had been and how it formed.

These clues included an unusually low level of silicon, chromium and manganese, suggesting that the rock did not form in the inner solar system. The researchers also noticed elevated levels of iron, sulfur, phosphorus, copper and vanadium, again making the object distinct from anything in our particular neighborhood in space.

Looking at Hypatia’s element concentration patterns, there were stark differences from what we would expect to have formed in rocks in the solar system’s interior and in our arm of the Milky Way. Further analysis rules out the idea that the rock was formed from a red giant star.

The researchers were also able to show that Hypatia was not what one would expect if it came from a type II supernova – it contains too much iron compared to silicon and calcium – and this leaves the possibility intriguing that it is a remnant of a Type Ia supernova, and the first discovery on this planet.

“If this hypothesis is correct, the Hypatia Stone would be the first hard evidence on Earth of a Type Ia supernova explosion,” he added. says Kramers.

“Perhaps equally important, it shows that an anomalous individual package of dust from outer space could actually be incorporated into the solar nebula from which our solar system was formed, without being completely mixed together. “

From what we know of Type Ia supernovae, they should produce very unusual patterns of element concentration in rocks such as Hypatia. Through extensive research of star data and modeling, the team was unable to find a better match for the rock.

Of the 15 elements analyzed in the stone, several matched what one would expect if the object came from a dense explosion of white dwarf stars.

However, this is not yet a closed case. Six other elements do not fit the Type 1a supernova models: aluminum, phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, copper, and zinc. However, the researchers think something further in the supernova’s past could explain this.

“Since a white dwarf star is formed from a dying red giant, Hypatia could have inherited these element proportions for the six elements of a red giant star”, says Kramers. “This phenomenon has been observed in white dwarf stars in other research.”

We’ll need more research to establish the science, but at this point it certainly seems like this mysterious rock has come a very long way.

The research has been published in Icarus.

South Africa: Deputy Minister Pinky Kekana – Vote on Government Communication and Information System Budget 2022/23 https://bungeni.org/2022/05/17/south-africa-deputy-minister-pinky-kekana-vote-on-government-communication-and-information-system-budget-2022-23/ Tue, 17 May 2022 11:23:04 +0000 https://bungeni.org/2022/05/17/south-africa-deputy-minister-pinky-kekana-vote-on-government-communication-and-information-system-budget-2022-23/

Deputy Minister Pinky Kekana Presentation of the government communication and information system budget vote (Brand SA & MDDA)

Honorable President,

Honorable Minister in the Presidency,

Honorable Speaker of the House,

Members of Parliament,

Ladies and gentlemen.

As we table the 2022/2023 budget for the government’s communications and information system, let us reflect on a year that has shown the resolve of South Africa, our people and this government. More recently, devastating floods hit several parts of our country, causing a huge upheaval in the lives of our people, mainly in KZN, which was still rebuilding after the riots less than a year ago.

The devastating floods and the unending COVID-19 pandemic have, however, proven that once again, when we are united as a nation, there is no challenge that we cannot overcome.

We heard inspiring stories of citizens who risked their own lives to save others, and how communities across geographic, racial and cultural divides came together to support each other. The helping hands and brave actions witnessed around the world crystallized President Cyril Ramaphosa’s final words during the 2022 State of the Nation Address when he said we should leave no one behind. The one bright spot amid any crisis in South Africa is that we don’t talk about Ubuntu, we live it.

Honorable Speaker of the House,

During these difficult times, our country’s communications system, led by the government’s communications and information system, GCIS, has been at the forefront of ensuring that South Africans are kept up to date with the critical developments and interventions.

Communication became a critical tool as it provided reliable information that enabled residents to access government support and make informed decisions. GCIS convened the Communications Working Groups comprised of government communicators to frequently provide accurate, useful and up-to-date information to assist those affected by the floods, while ensuring that the country’s media network is well informed. of all official companies. and process.

We will continue to use the power of communication to support reconstruction efforts and, similarly, draw all South Africans into a united and focused national drive on the President’s reconstruction and economic recovery plan, towards an Africa of the prosperous South, that we can one day say – we ‘built, back, better’.

The GCIS will build on the 2022 State of the Nation Address commitment which affirmed our nation’s path to stabilization and recovery, empowering South Africans with the information to become agents of meaningful change. , fulfilling our constitutional mandate.

Honorable Members,

Brand South Africa’s work remains crucial in ensuring that South Africa is able to strengthen our competitiveness and effectively bring the world to our doorstep. As such, we will invest R33 million to boost Brand SA activities that contribute to social cohesion, national pride and active citizenship, through the Play Your Part programme.

We must create favorable conditions to attract domestic and foreign investment, tourism and optimize trade relations with other countries. Therefore, the main objective of the program will be to promote constitutional values, encourage entrepreneurship to stimulate the economy and job creation, and redouble efforts to address the problems that harm to the reputation of our national brand.

Brand South Africa will invest R63 million in activities that advance our country’s national brand reputation to improve our attractiveness and competitiveness globally.

In doing so, we will support our drive to attract foreign direct investment as part of the government’s efforts to revive economic growth and create much-needed jobs.

Through targeted marketing campaigns “We Invite You to Believe in SA” and “Think South Africa, Think Opportunity”, we will position our country positively to international, regional and national investors.

The campaigns will put South Africa at the forefront as a strategic entry point for investors, through the African Continental Free Trade Area or AfCFTA, and we will leverage these campaigns by supporting programs, for example, to train one million women and youth on the AfCFTA. by 2025.

We will also use our country’s participation in the World Economic Forum, Mining Indaba, BRICS and the UN General Assembly to position South Africa as a trade and investment partner of choice. This will be complemented by the growing promotion of our brand through the Global South Africans network which targets South Africans living in the US, UK, China, Australia and other key markets on the African continent. .

To ensure that our work has the desired results, Brand South Africa will assess and monitor the country’s performance and global reputation. This will be supported by work to counter negative messages and perceptions about South Africa through a strategic reputation management program that will position South Africa favorably nationally, regionally and internationally.

The lifting of foreign travel bans and the national state of disaster will allow much more travel both domestic and international. This gives us the opportunity to increase our country’s presence in various markets.

Brand South Africa has allocated R14 million to ensure consistency in messaging and branding of the country by key stakeholders as part of promoting the country internationally.

The organization will rely on partnerships to market the country’s brand image, promote the country’s value proposition and provide a meaningful interface with stakeholders who positively influence our country’s brand image. Brand South Africa will also host its annual flagship National Brand Forum which brings together key stakeholders across the country in promoting our brand globally.

Honorable Members,

I would like to draw your attention to an important sector that is the heart of small, vibrant communities in our country. Community media has become an alternative voice to mainstream media. This adds to the plurality of voices that we desperately seek as a thriving democracy.

This sector has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has strained the financial resources of many community media initiatives, jeopardizing the many gains we have made in the sector since the beginning of democracy. This year will therefore be a time of recovery for community and small commercial media, supported by the government through the Media Development and Diversity Agency.

MDDA is finalizing the sustainability model for community and small commercial media projects, which will be a first for the local community.

media sector and is supported by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The central idea of ​​the model is centered on the theme “Building a resilient and forward-looking community and a small commercial media sector”.

We will also support the sector through our grant funding policy to ensure community growth and small commercial media projects. The MDDA has approved grants and start-up funds for 24 community radio stations and 10 community projects and small commercial printing projects across the country. We believe this will go a long way in helping the sector stabilize and get on the road to recovery.

Community media that operate in the poorest, most vulnerable and most economically underdeveloped communities find it nearly impossible to generate revenue through traditional means such as advertising. Our fundraising and support strategy aims to help these media become self-sufficient in the long term. We target international donors and major media companies for financial and non-financial support. In this regard, during the last fiscal year, we launched a formal fundraising strategy.